Manchester United Football Club, commonly known as Man United (often stylized as Man Utd) or simply United, is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. The club competes in the Premier League, the top division of the English football league system. Nicknamed the Red Devils, they were founded in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club but changed their name to Manchester United in 1902. After a spell at Clayton in Manchester, the club moved to its present Old Trafford ground in 1910.
Manchester United have won a record 20 league titles, 12 FA Cups, 6 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. They have won the European Cup/Champions League 3 times and the UEFA Cup, UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup, UEFA Super Cup, Intercontinental Cup and FIFA Club World Cup once each.  In 1968, under the leadership of Matt Busby, they became the first English club to win the European Cup, 10 years after eight of the club’s players died in the Munich air crash. Sir Alex Ferguson was the club’s longest-serving and most successful manager, winning 38 trophies between 1986 and 2013, including 13 league titles, five FA Cups and two Champions Leagues . In the 1998/99 season, under the leadership of Ferguson, the club became the first club in the history of English football to achieve the European Triple Crown of the Premier League, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League. Under Jose Mourinho, they won the Europa League in 2016-17, making them one of five clubs to win the original three European club competitions (Champions League, Europa League and Cup Winners’ Cup) one of the departments.
Manchester United is one of the most supported football clubs in the world, competing with Liverpool, Manchester City, Arsenal and Leeds United. Manchester United was the highest-grossing football club in the world in 2016/17 with annual revenues of €676.3 million and the third most valuable football club in the world in 2019 with a value of £3.15 billion ($3.81 billion).[13 ] After the club was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was privatized in 2005 after being bought by American businessman Malcolm Glazer for almost £800 million, of which more than £500 million of borrowings became the club’s debt. As of 2012, a portion of the club’s shares were listed on the New York Stock Exchange, but the Glazer family retained overall ownership and control of the club.
Manchester United was founded in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the coaching and wagon departments of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (LYR) depots in Newton Heath. The team initially competed against other divisions and railroads, but on November 20, 1880, they entered their first taped competition. Dressed in the Railways colors – green and gold – they were beaten 6-0 by Bolton Reserves. By 1888, the club was a founding member of the regional football league, The Combination. The league disbanded after just one season and Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football League, which was merged into the Football League after running for three seasons. This led to the club starting the 1892/93 season in the First Division, by which time they had become independent from the railway company and dropped ‘LYR’ from their name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division. 
In January 1902, the club owed £2,670 in debt – equivalent to £310,000 in 2023. 1] – Decision to dissolve is served.  Captain Harry Stafford found four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies (who became club chairman), who were willing to invest £500 each in exchange for an immediate interest in running the club, and they changed the Name;  On April 24, 1902, Manchester United was officially born. [nb 2] Under Ernest Mangnall, who took over management in 1903, the team finished runners-up in the Second Division in 1906, promoted to the First Division, and won the Championship in 1908 – the club’s first league champion. The following season started with a maiden Charity Shield victory and ended with the club’s first FA Cup. United won the First Division for a second time in 1911, but Manganar left to join City at the end of the following season.
In 1922, three years after football resumed after the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, where it was promoted again until 1925. United were relegated again in 1931 to a yo-yo club and succeeded in 1934, finishing the lowest in the Second Division at 20th. After the death of principal patron John Henry Davies in October 1927, the club’s financial situation deteriorated to such an extent that it would have been worsened if James W. Gibson had not With £2,000 invested and control of the club, Manchester United could well be bankrupt. The club took over.  In the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before World War II, the club finished 14th in the First Division.
Busy years (1945–1969)
Main article: Manchester United history (1945-1969)
Black and white photo of several people in suits and coats standing on the steps of an airplane.
1955 Busby Babes. Manager Matt Busby is front right.
In October 1945, the looming resumption of post-war football led to the appointment of Matt Busby as manager, who demanded unprecedented control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions.  Busby led the team to second place in the league in 1947, 1948 and 1949, and won the FA Cup in 1948. In 1952, the club won the First Division Championship, their first in 41 years. They then went on to win back-to-back league titles in 1956 and 1957; the team, with an average age of 22, was dubbed the “Busby Babes” by the media, a testament to Busby’s faith in young players. Manchester United became the first English side to play in the European Cup in 1957 and Chelsea were not given the same opportunity last season despite opposition from the Football League.  On the way to losing to Real Madrid in the semi-finals, the team beat Belgian champions Anderlecht 10-0, which is still the biggest victory in the club’s history.
A stele with a picture of a football field and a few names engraved on it. It is surrounded by a stone border in the shape of a football field. Above the panel are wooden carvings of two men holding large wreaths.
Plaque at Old Trafford commemorating the victims of the Munich air disaster, including the players’ names
The following season, a plane carrying United players, officials and journalists crashed while trying to take off after refueling in Munich, Germany, on its way home from a European Cup quarter-final win over Red Star Belgrade. The Munich air disaster of February 6, 1958 claimed the lives of 23 people, including eight players – Jeff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Coleman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylor and Billy Whelan — and several others were injured.   George Best (left), Dennis Law (centre) and Bobby Charlton (right) at the United Trinity statue outside Old Trafford
Assistant manager Jimmy Murphy took over while Busby returned from injury and the club’s makeshift team reached the FA Cup final, where they lost to Bolton Wanderers. Recognizing the tragedy of the team, UEFA invited the club to participate in the 1958-59 European Cup alongside eventual league champions Wolverhampton Wanderers. Despite the FA’s approval, the FA ruled that the club was ineligible for the competition due to ineligibility. Busby rebuilt the side in the 1960s, signing players such as Dennis Law and Pat Cleland, and together with the next generation of youth players – including George Best – they won the FA Cup in 1963 . They finished second in the league the following season before winning the title in 1965 and 1967. In 1968, Manchester United became the first English club to win the European Cup, beating Benfica 4-1 in the final, and the team included three European Player of the Year: Bobby Charlton, Denis Law and George Best. [33 ] They then represented Europe in the 1968 Intercontinental Cup against Argentinian students but lost the draw after losing the first leg in Buenos Aires and three weeks later at Old Trafford. The German Stadium drew 1-1. Busby resigned as manager in 1969 and was replaced by reserve team manager Wilf McGuinness, a former Manchester United player.
After finishing eighth in 1969/70 and a poor start to 1970/71, Busby was persuaded to temporarily resume managerial duties, while McGuinness was reinstated as reserve team manager. Frank O’Farrell was named head coach in June 1971, but served less than 18 months before being replaced by Tommy Docherty in December 1972. Doherty saved United from relegation that season, and they were relegated in 1974; by this time the trio of Best, Law and Charlton had left the club. The team went straight to the FA Cup final in 1976, but were beaten by Southampton. In 1977, they reached the final again, beating Liverpool 2-1. Shortly thereafter, Doherty was sacked after an affair with the wife of the club’s physio came to light.
In the summer of 1977, Dave Sexton succeeded Docherty as head coach. Despite signing important players like Joe Jordan, Gordon McQueen, Gary Bailey and Ray Wilkins, the team failed to win any trophies. They were runners-up in 1979-80 but lost to Arsenal in the 1979 FA Cup final. Sexton was fired in 1981, though the team won its final seven games under his stewardship. He was replaced by Rowan Atkinson, who immediately broke the British transfer fee record, signing Brian Robson from his former club West Bromwich Albion. Under Atkinson, Manchester United won the FA Cup in 1983 and 1985, beating rivals Liverpool to win the 1983 Charity Shield. In the 1985–86 season, after 13 wins and 2 draws in their first 15 games, the club were favorites for the title, but finished fourth. The following season, Atkinson was sacked as the club faced relegation threats in November.
Alex Ferguson and his assistant Archinox arrived from Aberdeen on the day Atkinson was sacked and guided the club to 11th in the league. Despite finishing second in 1987-88, the club fell back to 11th the following season. Reportedly on the verge of being sacked, Ferguson’s job was saved by defeating Crystal Palace in the 1990 FA Cup final. The following season, United won their first Cup Winners’ Cup. The victory allowed the club to participate in the UEFA Super Cup for the first time, with United beating European champions Red Star Belgrade 1-0 at Old Trafford. The club played back-to-back League Cup finals in 1991 and 1992, beating Nottingham Forest 1-0 in the second game to win the tournament for the first time. In 1993, the club won their first league title since 1967, and a year later they completed their first ‘double’ in club history by winning their second consecutive FA Cup for the first time since 1957. “. 39] United then became the first English club to win the Double twice, winning two more in 1995/96 and then defending the title again in 1996/97 with just one game remaining.
Top three: Manchester United’s 1998/99 treble medal is on display in the club’s museum.
In the 1998/99 season, Manchester United became the first team to win the Premier League, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League in the same season – the ‘Treble Crown’.  Before injury time in the 1999 Champions League final, Teddy Sheringham and Ole Gunnar Solskjaer lost 1-0, with a late goal in a dramatic win over Bayern Munich Considered one of the greatest comebacks of all time.  That summer, Ferguson was knighted for his contributions to football. 
In November 1999, the club became the only English team to win the Intercontinental Cup when they beat mighty 1999 Copa Libertadores champions Palmeiras 1-0 in Tokyo. The Red Devils were counting on 2002 FIFA World Cup winner Marcos’ goalkeeper surprise error and Alex’s goal disallowed to win the game. 
A white soccer player with short gray hair. He was wearing a red shirt, white shorts, white socks and white football boots. His cheeks puffed out as he walked.
Ryan Giggs is the most successful player in English football history. 
Manchester United won the league title again in the 1999-2000 and 2000-01 seasons, becoming the fourth club to win three consecutive Championship titles. The team finished third in 2001/02 before regaining the title in 2002/03. They won the 2003-04 FA Cup, beating Millwall 3-0 in the final at Cardiff’s Millennium Stadium to lift the trophy for a record 11th time. In 2005/06, United failed to qualify for the knockout stages of the UEFA Champions League for the first time in over a decade, but bounced back in the league, finishing second and beating Wigan Athletic in the 2006 Football League Cup finals. The club regained the Premier League title in 2006/07 and then won the European Double in 2007/08 by beating Chelsea 6-5 on penalties. The 2008 UEFA Champions League Final was played in Moscow. Won his 17th English league title. Ryan Giggs made 759 appearances for the club in that campaign, beating the previous record holder, Bobby Charlton. In December 2008, the club became the first English side to win the FIFA Club World Cup, followed by the 2008/09 Football League Cup and a third consecutive Premier League title. Striker Cristiano Ronaldo was sold to Real Madrid for a world-record £80m this summer.  In 2010, Manchester United defeated Aston Villa 2-1 at Wembley Stadium, defending the League Cup, which was their first knockout defense.
After finishing runners-up to Chelsea in 2009-10, United won a record 19th league title in 2010-11 and sealed the league with a 1-1 draw against Blackburn Rovers on 14 May 2011 championship title. The 2012-13 league title was extended with a 3-0 home win over Aston Villa on 22 April 2013.
2013 to present
On 8 May 2013, Ferguson announced that he would retire at the end of the football season, but would remain a director and ambassador of the club. He retired as the most decorated manager in football history. The club announced the next day that Everton boss David Moyes would replace him from July 1 after signing a six-year deal. Ryan Giggs took over as interim player-manager 10 months later on 22 April 2014, when Moyes was sacked after a poor season which saw the club fail to defend the Premier League title and fail to secure a Champions League qualification, for the first time since 1995–96. They also failed to qualify for the Europa League, meaning United failed to qualify for European competition for the first time since 1990. On May 19, 2014, it was confirmed that Louis van Gaal would replace Moyes as Manchester United coach with a three-year contract and Giggs as his assistant. Malcolm Glazer, patriarch of the club’s owning family, passed away on 28 May 2014.  Wayne Rooney receives the club’s top scorer award from former record holder Sir Bobby Charlton, January 2017
United won their 12th FA Cup under Louis van Gaal but a disappointing slump midway through his second season sparked talk of a board scrambling for a potential replacement.  After United finished fifth in the league, Van Gaal was eventually sacked two days after winning the cup final.  On 27 May 2016, former Porto, Chelsea, Inter Milan and Real Madrid coach Jose Mourinho was appointed in his place.  Mourinho signed a three-year contract and won the FA Community Shield, League Cup and Europa League in his debut season. Wayne Rooney scored his 250th goal for Manchester United in league stoppage time against Stoke City in January 2017, surpassing Sir Bobby Charlton as the club’s all-time top scorer.  The following season, United finished second in the league – their highest league position since 2013 – but remained 19 points behind rivals Manchester City. Mourinho also led the club to their 19th FA Cup final, where they lost 1-0 to Chelsea. On December 18, 2018, when United were sixth in the Premier League table, 19 points behind leaders Liverpool and 11 behind Champions League places, Mourinho was sacked after 144 games in charge. The following day, former Manchester United striker Ole Gunnar Solskjaer was appointed caretaker manager until the end of the season. On 28 March 2019, after winning 14 of his first 19 games in charge, Solskjaer was appointed permanent manager on a three-year contract.
On 18 April 2021, Manchester United announced that they would join 11 other European clubs as founding members of the UEFA Super League, a proposed 20-team competition designed to compete with the UEFA Champions League. The announcement drew backlash from fans, other clubs, media partners, sponsors, players and the UK government, forcing the club to withdraw just two days later.  The failure of the project led to the resignation of Executive Vice-Chairman Ed Woodward, and the resulting protests against Woodward and the Glazer A pitch invasion ahead of a Premier League game against Liverpool as supporters protest the history of the game.
On the pitch, United equaled their own record for the biggest win in Premier League history with a 9-0 win over Southampton on February 2, 2021, but lost to Vittoria on penalties in the Europa League final. La Real, thus ending the season. Four consecutive seasons without a trophy. On November 20, 2021, Solskjær left his managerial role.  Former midfielder Michael Carrick was in charge of the next three games before Ralph Rangnick was appointed caretaker manager until the end of the season.
On April 21, 2022, Eric ten Haag was named head coach at the end of the 2021-22 season, with a contract until June 2025, with an option for a further year. On May 23, 2022, Mitchell van der Gaag and Steve McLaren were confirmed as assistant coaches for the Ten Witches. Ten Witches won the 2022-23 Carabao Cup with Manchester United, winning 2-0 against Newcastle United. The club suffered its heaviest ever defeat on 5 March 2023, a 7-0 loss at Anfield to bitter rivals Liverpool
The club crest is derived from that of Manchester City Council, although only the boat at full sail remains from the current crest. The Devil derives from the club’s nickname, the “Red Devils”; it was incorporated into club items and scarves in the 1960s and into the club crest in 1970, although the badge did not appear on the shirt chest until 1971. In 1975, the Red Devils (“A devil facing the sinister warden and support a three-pronged regles with both stands”) were awarded the English Football League by the Academy of Arms as the heraldic coat of arms for use by Manchester United.
Newton Heath’s uniform is recorded as ‘White and Blue Rope’ in 1879, four years before the club played its first official game.  A photograph of the Newton Heath team from 1892 is believed to show the players wearing red and white quarter-shirts and navy blue shorts. Players wore green and gold jerseys between 1894 and 1896, which were replaced by white shirts and navy blue shorts in 1896. 
After the name change in 1902, the club’s colors were changed to red jersey, white shorts and black socks, which became the standard home jersey of Manchester United. Few changes were made to the kit until 1922, when the club adopted a white shirt with a crimson ‘V’ on the neckline, similar to the one worn in the 1909 FA Cup final. They were part of the household outfit until 1927.  Cherry red and white tire replacement kits were once the home colors in 1934, but the red kits were recalled the following season and changed again after the club finished an all-time low 20th in the Second Division. 
From 1959 to 1965, the black socks were changed to white until 1971, when they were replaced by red socks, with occasional use of white when the club reverted to black. Black shorts and white socks are sometimes worn with the home jersey, most often in away games where there is a clash with an opponent’s jersey. In the 2018-19 season, black shorts and red socks became the main choice of home jerseys. Since 1997-98, white socks have been the first choice for European games, usually on weekdays to increase player visibility. The current home kit is a red shirt with the typical Adidas red three stripes on the shoulder, white shorts and black socks